being able to ________ is a key benefit for those who study management.
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this course reviews several approaches to employee motivation first we define motivation and the types of rewards that managers use then we examine several models that describe employee needs and processes associated with motivation most of us get up in the morning go to school or work and behave in ways that are predictably our own all of these behaviors are motivated by something but most of us dont think about why we do the things that we do motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action employee motivation affects productivity and part of a managers job is to channel motivation towards the accomplishment of organizational goals studies have found that high employee motivation goes hand-in-hand with high organizational performance and profit its the responsibility of managers to find the right combination of motivational techniques and rewards to satisfy employee needs and simultaneously encourage great work performance managers who understand the motives that compel people to initiate alter or continue a desired behavior are more successful as motivators intrinsic rewards are the satisfactions that a person receives in the process of performing a particular action the completion of a particular task may bestow a pleasant feeling of accomplishment or solving a problem that benefits others may fulfill personal mission extrinsic rewards are given by another person typically a manager and include promotions praise and pay increases they originate externally as a result of pleasing others effective managers want people to receive both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to meet their needs researchers at the London School of Economics analyzed more than 50 studies to examine what gets people motivated at work they concluded that people give their best effort when the work itself interests and excites them when they feel that their work provides meaning and purpose and when they feel appreciated for the work and their contributions Maslows hierarchy of needs theory proposes is that people are motivated by multiple needs and that those needs exist in a hierarchical order Maslow identified five general types of motivating needs listed an order here starting with psychological needs then safety needs followed by belonging this news then esteem needs and finally self-actualization needs physiological needs are the basic human physical needs that include water food oxygen and so
on in the organizational setting they are reflected in the needs for adequate heat air and base salary to ensure survival safety needs include a safe and secure physical and emotional environment with freedom from threats that is freedom from violence and from an orderly society in the workplace safety needs reflect the needs of safe jobs fringe benefits and job security belongingness needs reflect the desire to be accepted by ones peers have friendships be part of a group and be loved in the organization these needs influence the desire for good relationships with coworkers participation in a work group and a positive relationship with supervisors esteem needs relate to the desire for positive self-image and the desire to receive attention recognition and appreciation from others within organizations esteem needs reflect the motivation for recognition an increase in responsibilities high status and credit for contributions to the organization self-actualization needs include the need for self fulfillment which is the highest need category they concern developing ones full potential increasing ones competence and becoming a better person self-actualization needs can be met in the organization by providing people with opportunities to grow be creative and acquire training for challenging assignments and advancement according to Maslows theory low order needs take priority they must be satisfied before higher order needs can be activated the needs are satisfied in sequence physiological needs come before safety needs safety needs before belonging this needs and so on a person desiring physical safety will devote his or her efforts to securing a safer environment and will not be concerned with esteem needs or self-actualization needs once a need is satisfied it declines and importance and the next higher need is activated the ERG Theory identified three categories of needs and is similar to Maslows the three categories of needs in the ERG Theory our existence relatedness and growth needs first existence needs are the needs for physical well-being relatedness needs then our needs for satisfactory relationships with others and finally growth needs are those that focus on the development of human potential and the desire for personal growth and increased competence the ERG model and Maslows needs hierarchy are similar because both are hierarchical and form and presume that individuals move up the hierarchy one step at a time however the ERG model reduced the number of needs
categories to three and proposed that movement up the hierarchy is more complex namely the failure to meet a high order need may trigger regression to an already fulfilled lower order need work characteristics associated with dissatisfaction are quite different from those pertaining to satisfaction which prompted the notion that two factors influence work motivation herzbergs two-factor theory believed that two entirely separate dimensions contribute to an employees behavior at work the center of the scale is neutral meaning that workers are neither satisfied or dissatisfied the first called hygiene factors involves the presence or absence of job dissatisfy errs such as working conditions pay company policies and interpersonal relationships when hygiene factors are poor work is dissatisfying however good hygiene factors simply removed the dissatisfaction they do not in themselves cause people to become more highly satisfied and motivated in their work the second set of factors does influence job satisfaction motivators focus on high level needs and include achievement recognition responsibility and opportunity for growth Herzberg believed that when motivators are absent workers are neutral towards work but when motivators are present workers are highly motivated and satisfied the acquired needs theory proposes that certain types of needs are acquired during an individuals lifetime in other words people are not born with these needs but may learn them through their life experiences the three needs most frequently studied are these first a need for achievement the desire to accomplish something difficult attained a high standard of success master complex texts and surpass others second the need for affiliation this is the desire to form close personal relationships avoid conflict and establish warm friendships third and finally the need for power which is the desire to influence or control others be responsible for others and have authority over others these motivation theories help managers understand what motivates people in this way managers can design work that meets needs and hence elicit appropriate and successful work behaviors so lets define employee engagement which means that people enjoy their jobs and are satisfied with work conditions contribute enthusiastically to meeting team and organizational goals and feel a sense of belonging and commitment to the organization surveys by Gallup show that employee engagement in the United States has been steadily increasing since 2013 yet forty nine point five percent of employees surveyed in early 2016
were identified as not engaged and 16.5% as actively disengaged fully engaged employees care deeply about the organization and actively seek ways to serve the mission while active disengagement or actively disengaged employees mean that people are actively undermining their organizations success managers can improve engagement by providing employees with three key elements a sense of meaningfulness a sense of connection and a sense of growth when managers organize the workplace in such a way as to create a sense of meaningfulness a sense of connection and a sense of growth employee engagement grows leading to high motivation and high organizational performance a sense of meaningfulness means that people feel that theyre working towards something important when employees have a chance to accomplish something that provides real value they feel a sense of meaningfulness good managers help people understand the purpose of their work which contributes to feelings of pride and dignity with a sense of connection people feel connected to the organization to one another and to their managers in a survey asking people what factors contribute to their engagement 79 percent of people said that good work relationships with coworkers drove engagement to a high or very high extent the behavior of managers makes the biggest difference in whether or not people feel engaged at work managers promote engagement when they listen to employees genuinely care about their concerns and help them develop positive relationships with colleagues and finally people feel a sense of growth when they have a chance to learn grow in advance to be fully engaged people needing that to not only feel that they are competent to handle whats asked of them but also that they have the chance to learn and expand their potential good managers help employees understand their own unique sets of talents skills interests attitudes and needs put people in jobs where they can make their best contribution and receive intrinsic rewards every day and make sure that people have what they need to perform well in addition they give people the chance to work on challenging projects offer high quality training and learning programs and provide opportunities for advancement within the organization studies have identified time and time again a correlation between high levels of employee engagement and organizational performance in unless turnover greater profitability and stronger employee and customer loyalty
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