Genotype, Phenotype, Homozygous, Heterozygous, Homozygote, Heterozygote (FL-Genetics/05)

an individual who is homozygous ______.
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till now in this lecture series we have come across four important terms gene allele dominant allele and recessive allele lets quickly recall these terms keep in mind that we are defining these terms in the context of Mendelian genetics gene is an inherited factor that determines a characteristic genes come in different versions the alternative versions of gene are known as alleles an individual inherits two allele for a character one from the male parent and one from the female parent these two allele can be same or different when two allele inherited by an individual are different the allele that expresses itself is known as the dominant allele and the allele that is not able to express itself is known as the recessive allele for example these are the two allele of the gene responsible for stem length and he plant capital T represents the allele for the tall trait and small T represents the allele for the dwarf trait when these two allele are present together the pea plant is tall that means allele responsible for the tall trait expressed itself so this is the dominant allele for a tall stem length in pea plants and this is the recessive allele for dwarf stem length we can also say that the dominant allele masks the expression of the recessive allele when these two allele are inherited together now lets understand what do we mean by terms genotype and phenotype if you remember the results of f2 progeny in the monohybrid cross you know that Mendel obtained three tall plants for everyone to are plant tall as well as dwarf plants were produced in the f2 generation Toland dwarf traits are observable characteristics the observable characteristic of an individual for any particular trait is known as its phenotype phenotype can be any type of characteristics such as physical physiological biochemical or behavioral so in the monohybrid cross the physical appearance of the plant that is the tall stem linked and the dwarf stem length is the phenotype but if we look at the genes or allele that padam in the phenotype of the plants in the f2 generation we will find that they are different as you can see here we have one tall plant having two dominant allele two tall plants having one dominant and one recessive allele and one plant having both recessive allele so the actual pair of allele present in an individual is its genotype genotype is defined as the genetic constitution of an individual for a particular trait here note that if we know

the dominant and recessive allele for a particular character we can easily predict the phenotype the phenotype can be determined by the genotype so it is now clear to us that phenotype refers to the organisms observable traits such as appearance and organisms genetic makeup is its genotype now genotype can be homozygous or heterozygous magis means the two alleles that are determining the particular trait are the same homo means same for example both these genotypes are homozygous as the two allele are identical in first case two dominant allele are present together this type of genotype is also known as homozygous dominant and when two recessive allele are present together the genotype is known as homozygous recessive heterozygous means the two alleles that are determining the trait are different hetero means different in this case one dominant and one recessive allele are present together so we now understand that the terms homozygous and heterozygous tells us about the genotype an individual or organism with the homozygous genotype is known as home was I goat for example if I am saying this tall pea plant is a homozygote that means this plant possesses two copies of the same allele for a gene similarly this dwarf plant is homozygote it possesses two copies of the same allele homozygote is a true breeding individual it will produce only one type of gamete on the other hand an individual with a heterozygous genotype is known as heterozygote that means this individual possesses two different allele for a gene for example if I am saying the stole plant is a heterozygote that means it has two different allele heterozygote individuals will produce gametes with different allele now lets understand what is a phenotypic and genotypic ratio again look at the results of f2 generation in monohybrid cross according to the phenotype there will be three tall plants for every one dwarf plant the ratio of tall to dwarf plants is 3 is to 1 this is the phenotypic ratio now if we look at the genotypes of f2 progeny there is only one plant having two dominant allele two plants having one dominant one recessive allele and one plant having both risks of leo according to genotype ratio will 1 is to 2 is to 1 this is the genotypic ratio thats all in todays video lecture I hope this lecture is helpful to you please dont forget to Like share and comment in the next video lecture we will study Mendels the hybrid cross and the law of independent assortment thank you for watching

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